Sunday, August 28, 2011

PSY 375 Late Adulthood Worksheet: worth 14 points

1. Evaluate how individuals can promote health and wellness into late adulthood and mitigate the negative effects of aging.

With all the advancements in medicine people can expect to live longer than ever before. For longer life individuals must take the steps necessary to live longer. If older Americans believe in the stereotypes they are putting themselves at risk for illness. Most diseases are not distinct to one age; almost everyone has at least disease one if not several diseases. People of all ages can take steps to be healthy, even people in late adulthood. One step that ensures health and wellness in late adulthood is to eat wisely. As humans bodies change they for certain foods also changes. Instead of dieting focusing on food goals of what to and not to eat is more feasible. Consuming more healthy food such as fruits, vegetables, and lean proteins will satisfy hunger and help make better eating choices. Eating healthy is not the only key, exercise is also needed.

Exercise for body and mind will help a person stay physically and mentally healthy. Aging causes a change in internal organs, muscle strength weakens, and bone density diminishes (Mitchell, 2011, para. 3). Staying active with low-impact workouts helps the body and mind. Doing brain teasers and puzzles keeps the mind sharp and helps fight off Alzheimer. Reading and learning new skills, is also an excellent way to help with keeping the brain alert. A person should not fall prey to the ageism stereotypes. A healthy outlook and a social network to keep the feel of being needed is also helpful in late adulthood. Sleep is also an important key to as older Americans do not obtain enough sleep, but spend more time in bed (Berger, 2008).

One way must older Americans mitigate the effects of aging is belief that it will not happen to them. The person will think that he or she is in good health and not take the steps needed to ensure good health.

Berger, K. S. (2008). The developing person through the life span (7th ed.). New York, NY: Worth Publishers.

Mitchell, Dr. T. (29, May 2011). 4 simple steps to aging well. USA Weekend. Retrieved from

2. Define ageism, and discuss the stereotypes associated with late adulthood.

Ageism is discriminating against a person in a certain age group. Ageism is also thinking a person is unworthy of attention, not suitable for employment, or regarding an older person as debilitated. Ageism occurs when others stereotype based on age. Ageism can occur in various degrees, jobs, stores, movies, television, even in advertising. Ageism is similar to sexism or racism because it treats a certain group differently. The way older Americans view negatively is wrong these views are stereotypes.

Late adulthood has many stereotypes that are associated with it. The elderly can be seen as helpless and incompetent. That all older Americans will develop Alzheimer’s and live in institutions. That older people cannot learn, and they are forgetful. According to Berger (2008) all stereotypes are false, and are a widespread prejudice. The study of ageism is still fairly new even though society has been judgmental for a very long time. Ageism could have a positive view of age is advantageous, with an association of age and wisdom, patience, or even the older one gets the better appreciation he or she has for life. These stereotypes may be intentional but even if they are not stereotyping is mean.

Ageism can occur without much notice or concern for the individuals. Ageism regardless of views is a stereotype, stereotypes are beliefs not based on any true information, but based on bias from a subset of people how endorse these misbelieves. All stereotypes hurt the people being stereotyped; the misconception just leads to a misunderstanding of a group, whereas elderly Americans have much to contribute to society.

Berger, K. S. (2008). The developing person through the life span (7th ed.). New York, NY: Worth Publishers.

3. Discuss views of death and dying in early childhood, adolescence, and late adulthood.

Death at any age can be a scary thought because of the unknown. People die suddenly; this can be from a heart attack, whereas most have a lingering death. To define death could be brain dead, which is a general acceptance as the brain has no function, or persistent vegetative state, a person is in a coma-like state for an extended amount of time. Most people in late adulthood wish to die with dignity, which supports the dying person both physically and psychologically. The way each stage views death is different.

Early childhood stage such as school-aged children has a realistic understanding of death. The child may personal death with an angel, a skeleton, or a spirit, but the young child understands that death is inevitable, permanent, and universal. A Child may be curious about death because of uncertainty of what happens when a person dies. The larger source of fear for a child may be separation family and friends ("A child's concept," 2008). Adolescence think of death differently because an adolescent will have a cognitive understanding but his or her view may still be irrational.

The adolescent wants in the event of death are similar to adults as the adolescent may express concerns for cultural rituals or religious beliefs to be observed. An adolescent will display a high level of risk-taking demonstrating that he or she has an understanding of death but there is gap between reality and logic. The adolescent’s relationship with peer groups has grown from young childhood. Within peer groups can be a theme of immortality, or exempt from death. The adolescent may have a realization of his or her own death, and this can change reality of death such as child facing a terminal illness ("A child's concept," 2008). All children will respond to death uniquely, a child needs support when he or she has concerns about death, someone who help with thoughts, and listen to when the child is in need. Even a person in late adulthood will have concerns about death.

Late adulthood concept on death is different because in late adulthood most are dealing with chronicle or terminal illness such as arthritis, hypertension, rheumatism, and heart disease. Elisabeth Kubler-Ross studied how older adults with terminal illness perceive death (The extended grief cycle, para. 2). Kubler-Ross found that most terminal ill displayed five basic reactions to death. The first reaction is denial, avoiding the reality of situation and isolating oneself from the event. The next reaction is anger; the person will wonder why it has to happen to him or her. The third stage occurs when the person will plead or bargain God or someone else for a different outcome. In the fourth stage the person realizes that death is inevitable and can become depressed because of the thought of leaving friends and family. The last stage occurs if death is not sudden, and this is acceptance. For all elderly, confronting death is crucial for psychological health.

A child's concept of death. (2008, November 30). Retrieved from

Berger, K. S. (2008). The developing person through the life span (7th ed.). New York, NY: Worth Publishers.

Changing (2011). The Kubler-Ross grief cycle. Retrieved from

4. Examine the role that cultural attitudes play in death and dying. In your response, discuss

the practices associated with death and dying for at least two non-western cultures.

In the early 1970s death emerge and was no longer thought of as taboo. The first half of the 20th century death was thought of less because most people were dying in hospitals or institution and few died in their homes (Hayslip, Jr., & Peveto, 2005). Death was no longer taken care of at home but was handled by funeral directors. Death came back in public eye in between 1970 and 1975 because of discussions in journals. Non-westerners view death differently. Nigerians have a triple heritage; two of these are Islam and traditional African belief.

To understand the Islamic view a person must understand the Islamic religion. This is a view of submission and peace, Submission is a complete acceptance of the one and only God Allah, and peace is with oneself, with the creator, and with all creations (Islamic center, 1995). When an Islam is facing death family and friends will support and comfort the dying person with remembrance of Allah and his will. Treatment and decision with death are done emotionally as the belief is that will and mercy of Allah will provide. Death is looked upon as a test from Allah, because everyone will die when Allah wills it. Africans have a different view of death.

African belief system is also ancestor worship, and life course is cyclical not linear (Eyetsemitan, 2011). The dead are not seen, but alive in a different world, and can be reincarnated. Africans also believe that the dead have supernatural powers over the living. Dead are worshipped with food, alcoholic drinks and money, and prayers of protection and blessing for the living (Eyetsemitan, 2011). Traditional belief in Africa is that death is from a spiritual element not a physical or medical reason.

Most Western civilizations know that death is from a cause, such as illness or accident, and bereavement is spent in a time of mourning.

Eyetsemitan, F. (2011). Cultural interpretation of dying and death in a non-western society: the case of Nigeria [McKendree College]. (Cultural perspectives on death, dying, and bereavement), Retrieved from context=orpc&sei-redir=1#search="two+non+western+cultural+views+on+death"

Hayslip, Jr., B, & Peveto, C.A. (2005). Cultural changes in attitudes toward death, dying and bereavement (Springer Series on Death and suicide), Retrieved from

Islamic center of Blacksburg for Islamic information & education. (1995). Dying and Death: Islamic View, 4(3), Retrieved from

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